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Lab 1-TheMetric System; What is it? What are the basic units? What are its advantages? Know and be able to convert  between the 3 basic prefixes kilo, centi and milli.
Lab 2: know what density is; What is the meaning of observation, inference, test, conclusion
Lab3: what makes a good clock.; Be able to use the free fall equations
Lab4 and 3.3-3.5. If forces accelerate masses over distances (W=MAD or W=FD), we call this work. A related term for this is  energy (=the ability to do work). Know and understand the 3 rules about energy: (thermodynamics). 1.   Conservation of energy (3.5) 2. entropy (p. 107) and 3. (Often called the Zeroeth Law) Total E of the Universe is  constant . Understand what went on in Lab 4.

SCIENCE See Chapter 1 and Internet Notes
What is it? what is it not? what is the difference between science and technology?
where does it come from? Why do we do it? When did it start? What are its assumptions about the universe, its goals and limits? What is the language of science? Why do we use mathematics?  What are common misconceptions about it? How do we do it? (methodology: perception that present models are wrong or incomplete- formulation of a better explanation- publication- concensus). Where do we get our information from? Where do we check our models? Know meaning of observations- inferences- measurements-experiments- conclusions; what is a theory, a model?

   CELESTIAL MOTION See Perspective 1 and the Internet Notes
Know the layout of the celestial sphere, i.e. reference points and lines
Know the three motions of the earth, i.e. rotation, revolution and precession and their consequences.
How to figure out latitude and the relationship between rotation, longitude and time (15 degrees/hour)
Know the phases of the moon.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT (See Perspective 3 and Internet)
Know 1) Who; 2)What did they add/say; 3)When ( when they did their work) and Where
 1. Egyptians (as an example of mythic)
2. Greeks: a. Ionians(Beginnings of natural philosophy):   Thales
                 b. Classical Greeks:  Plato and Aristotle
3. Hellenistic Period:   Eratosthenes,  Aristarchus, Hipparchus and Ptolemy
4. Islamic Contribution
5.Transfer from Islamic Knowledge  to West
6.Renaissance Western Europe:  Copernicus;  Brahe;  Kepler (How planets move was expressed by in his 3 laws.       now what they are and what thay mean);   (w/ Galileo, beginnings of Modern Science)
  Galileo (what did he see w/ his telescope)
  Newton (including his 3 laws)The causes of motion are expressed by Newton's Laws. See Ch 2
   Know these laws. 1 .Inertia   2. Forces cause masses to accelerate  3. Forces come in pairs.  Be able to recognize examples of the laws and to tell what happens when variables are changed.
   Also know the 3 forces, their relative strengths and the relative distances over which they    operate. Read section on gravity.
  Hubble (spiral nebulae and Red Shift) and Einstein (Relativity)

8.4 One fundamental characteristic of the universe is that all light from other galaxies outside of local cluster is red-shifted, i.e. distances between objects increasing. Moreover, the farther the object, the greater the red shift.
Two models evolved to explain this expansion:
a) Steady State: The appearance of the universe does not change over time or space. Matter appears as the universe expands keeping the density of the universe constant; i.e. non-evolving, even though individual galaxies within universe change, the overall aspect does not. The universe has always been here as we see it.
b) Big Bang. The universe is actually changing while expanding. Started as cosmic egg, exploded and matter and radiation has been moving outward ever since. Evolving, changing universe, with a beginning in time; decreasing density; constant mass.
Which is the preferred model?
Discovery of quasars in the past universe (they are not present now), indicates that the universe has changed (evolved) hence steady state is out. (does not imply that BB is in).  Discovery of Echo (=hydrogen hiss, background radiation), can only be explained as remnant radiation of BB. Hence BB is in.

The early universe: 8.4 (Read it)
Cosmic egg; Big Bang; expansion begins: at beginning, radiation only; as cooling takes place, matter forms.
within 1st second: formation of basic particles;   within a few minutes: formation of nuclei principally H and He.
within hundreds of thousands of years: formation of neutral atoms and universer becomes transparent; thereafter, fragmentation of this single universe into protogalaxies, that ultimately evolve into galaxies by forming stars.

Future of the universe. 8.5 What ties everything together is gravity. This gravitational pull is a function of total mass present. 1) If there is not enough mass, the universe will expand forever and die a (lack of) heat (=entropy) death. This is an open universe. 2) With just a sufficient amount of matter, the universe may expand and come to a stop but it will not contract again; a flat or critical universe. 3) If on the other hand, there is enough matter, the expansion will slow down, stop, the universe will reverse course and come back together into another cosmic egg and another BB, etc. This is an oscillating or closed universe.
What does the present evidence tell us? Chapter 3 on waves, 8,9,10
AVES 3.6 Modern astronomy is based on waves, and what they tell us about what emitted them. Waves are disturbances that travel through space and carry Energy. General description of a wave: crest, trough, wavelenghth, amplitude, height, velocity and frequency. For all waves, Wave length=V/F; also E=hF. Some, i.e. physical or mechanical waves, need matter to travel through, such as sound, water and earthquake waves.
Others are electromagnetic in nature and travel best through space devoid of matter. Because they travel at a constant speed in space (C=300,000 km/s or 186,000mi/s), their wavelength is inversely proportional to their frequency.  8.3 also 9.2  EM waves are a family of waves, related to each other by their nature, (all are EM) differing by their wavelength, frequency and energy: the EM Spectrum:
Shorter wavelength, higher frequency, greater energy
Radio, Radar/Microwaves, IR, Visible,  UV,  X,   Gamma
                                                   ROYGBIV       rays   rays
Understand how matter produces radiation, both continuous spectra and line spectra.
The reason these waves are so important is that they provide us with a window to the universe because of the information they carry.
Based on the spectra we receive, we can figure out the following:
1-Composition of the object: line spectra    2-Temperature of the object: peak emission
3-State of the object:dense objects (liquids, solids and gases)emit continuous spectra
thin(non-dense) gases are characterized by line spectra (hot=emission=bright line spectra;  4-Motion of the object= blue shift or red shift of spectral lines.
8.3 How do we capture these waves? Eyes and telescopes and cameras.
Eyes: disadvantages- restricted in range of frequencies  cannot add or store light; limited light gathering ability
Telescopes- advantages: magnify, resolve, and gather light.
     When combined with a camera, additive (long time exposures )
     types: Refracting, lenses, "invented" by Galileo, and Reflecting, "invented" by Newton:  2 types of reflecting:
    1) optical(Newtonian and Cassegrainian) and 2) radio
We tend to use reflecting because a) they cover a greater range of frequencies, do not show chromatic abberation, fewer surfaces to lose light off, fewer surfaces to grind, and less distortion because of lesser weight.

8.3 Using these tools, we look at space:
Our star or solar system, sun, 9 planets, moons, meteorites, comets; this is but one star system in our galaxy (Milky Way) (100 Billion stars+/-). Galaxies are made of stars in clusters (know two types)and of nebulae; clusters of galaxies (several galaxies), superclusters and voids. The exact arrangment beyond superclusters is not clear. The universe (all matter and radiation)contains some 100 billion galaxies.  Also know types of galaxies, spiral ans elliptical, and their size, and how made.  Relationship between time and distance.P. 246    Know how we scale distances in the universe: 1) parallax, 2) variable cepheids and 3) red shift, the farther the object, the greater the red shift.
Distances within star systems, light days/weeks; between star systems light years; size of a a galaxy ~100,000 l.y.; between galaxies millions of light years. Size of the universe, 15-plus billion l.y.

Within the protogalaxies, stars will form. Know the stages of a star's life. This is a significant section. I expect you to know the stages, their proper sequence, how you tell them apart and what is happening to that star. See chapter 9. Summary chart on p. 260 and on Net (later, more detailed chart).

You are also responsible for Chapter 10, description of the solar system. You  should be able to recognize the bodies in the solar system based on their characteristics, in other words be able to "name that object". Know the general differences between the inner and outer planets. Know how and when the solar system formed; how and why the inner planets are different from the outer ones. See ch.10, the net and the handout on planetary facts.

Key labs in this section include 1) spectra (know the 2 kinds of spectra we looked at, the colors of the visible spectrum and what line spectra are used for), and 2) telescopes (focal length of lenses, what lenses do to images, what the power of a telescope is), and 3) do not forget the images and tapes.


I. Earth Materials: Chapter 11
A. Minerals
Definition, how classified, how recognized; Know physical properties. The most important group of minerals, the silicates.  Basic structure, a tetrahedron w/ silicon in the center and 4 oxygen atoms on the corners.
B. Rocks
Definition; 3 main groups; how classified;
Know the rock cycle, in detail, including materials and processes and the rock names (see p. 329) see especially the rock cycle on the net.  Includes  discussion on volcanos, lava viscosity, shape, ash content and violence of  eruption.

II. General description of an inner planet, the Earth.  Know the three main layers: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and their characteristics.  Know and be able to label a cross-section through  the lithosphere, including the main features that we see at the surface of the earth..

III. Internal structure of the "solid" earth.
A. Direct evidence: mining, drilling and volcanos.
B. Indirect evidence based on EQ waves.
E.Q. generate waves that go through the body as well as surface waves that travel at the surface. Causes of earthquakes:  elastic rebound.  Seismographs; location of an E.Q.; measurement scales: Richter and Mercalli.
Know the general characteristics and behavior of compressional and shear waves, see also fig 12-5.
When earthquakes occur, there is always a specific pattern of wave arrivals (Figure 12-6).  Given how P and S waves behave, this tells us a lot about the interior.  Know the explanations.

Based on this seismic info we have derived the overall structure as: Crust- M discontinuity- uppermost mantle-that together make up the lithosphere.  The low velocity zone which corresponds to the asthenosphere- The remainder of the mantle including the transition zone and the lower mantle- G/W discontinuity-and the core: outer core - inner core. See Table 12-2., and  table on  net
I. Density-zoned compositional layers: atmosphere-hydrosphere-crust-mantle-core.
II. Functional layers (due to composition, temperature and pressure): lithosphere(s)-asthenosphere (semi-molten)- transition zone(s)- lower mantle(s)- outer(l) and inner cores(s); see Table 12-3. Know basic characteristics of these layers, i.e. composition, density, thicknesses, state.

IV. Plate tectonics:  Basic geologic paradigm
Before WWI Wegener proposes the idea of Continental Drift, based on fit of edges, rock layers, structures, fossils and glaciation. When  first published, his ideas are considered impossible. During the following decades additional evidence accumulates, and finally in the late 50's and early 60's, the isolated pieces of the puzzle fall into place.
The primary evidence that plates move comes from the ocean: age, composition, and paleomagnetism along the Mid-ocean rift among others. Plate activity is mainly located on the margins where plates meet (interplate).

Know the three main types of boundaries,
 b. convergent 1. O/O;  2.O/C;  3. C/C
 c. transform
and also the specific features and geographic examples of each type.
There are also features internal to plates (intraplate features): hot spots and transform faults

Given the understanding gained from plate tectonics, it is evident that continental drift does fit within this pattern of moving plates and Wegener's evidence, with considerable data added, turns out to be part of the larger picture of plate tectonics. Know the evidence for continental drift and the pattern of how the continents moved.

Understand the basis of geological time
1. absolute (discussed under natural radioactivity, remember half-lives etc.) and,
2. relative. Know how we can figure out a local sequence based on the relationship between layers (5 basic principles) and the importance of fossils for correlation. Also know what fossils are, their uses, classification, etc.,).  Finally know the four main subdivisions of geologic time, their basis, and what life they are characterized by.